Drugs of abuse in tap water from eight European countries: Determination by use of supramolecular solvents and tentative evaluation of risks to human health – PubMed (nih.gov)

Published on 07/20/2022 | by Waterline Admin

Muñiz-Bustamante L, Caballero-Casero N, Rubio S. Drugs of abuse in tap water from eight European countries: Determination by use of supramolecular solvents and tentative evaluation of risks to human health. Environ Int. 2022 Jun;164:107281. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2022.107281. Epub 2022 May 6. PMID: 35561596.



  • Recent research findings have confirmed the presence of illicit drugs in tap water from some European Union (UE) member states.
  • Contaminants in tap water come directly from drinking water sources such as rivers or lakes owing to inefficient removal at wastewater treatment and water purification plants.
  • This study assessed the health risks of exposure to twelve drugs of abuse through consumption of tap water in the European population.
  • A total of 119 tap water samples were collected from eight EU countries for analysis.
    • Seven drugs were found at concentrations from 0.3 to 340 ng/L in 72 of the samples (60.5%).
    • The mean exposure to the drugs through consumption of tap water was calculated to be 0.0064-3.531 ng/kg·day for adults and 0.0247-6.7580 ng/kg·day for children.
  • Exposure values were compared with the minimum required performance levels (MRPL) for the drugs in urine set by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). Based on the results, a need clearly exists for further research into the adverse effects on health of inadvertent, sustained exposure to low doses of drugs of abuse.



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Grime Scene


Following on from the successful Grime Scene competition, we have decided to continue the theme for another year, but with a twist. This year, we are asking for photographs of the grimiest pictures you can find accompanied with another photograph of how the ‘scene’ has been improved by your maintenance or cleaning.

We will display the photographs in each of the Waterline editions throughout 2024. The ‘most improved’ picture will be chosen by WMSoc members via an online vote. The winner will receive a £25 Amazon Gift Voucher after the Winter 2024/25 edition has been published.

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