Research

A selection of links to recent research papers – some of which are free to access.

Benoit MÈ, Prévost M, Succar A, Charron D, Déziel E, Robert E, Bédard E. Faucet aerator design influences aerosol size distribution and microbial contamination level. Sci Total Environ. 2021 Jun 25;775:145690. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.145690. Epub 2021 Feb 6. PMID: 33631571.

Highlights Tap aerators can spread contaminated aerosol particles in the environment. Aerosol particles characteristics and production differ with different types of aerators. Aerator fouling can lead to higher contaminated aerosol particles production. Thorough mechanical cleaning of an aerator is effective at reducing biofilm.   LINK TO PAPER – CLICK HERE

Donohue MJ. Quantification of Legionella pneumophila by qPCR and culture in tap water with different concentrations of residual disinfectants and heterotrophic bacteria. Sci Total Environ. 2021 Jun 20;774:145142. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.145142. Epub 2021 Feb 6. PMID: 33610980.

Highlights Culture underestimates L. pneumophiladetection frequency and concentration. Quantitative PCR is more sensitive than culture for L. pneumophiladetection. Free‑chlorine residual is a good indicator of microbiological quality control. Monochloramine residual is not a good indicator of microbiological quality control. For chloramine water, HPC analysis is the better indicator of microbial control.   LINK TO PAPER – CLICK HERE

Pereira A, Silva AR, Melo LF. Legionella and Biofilms-Integrated Surveillance to Bridge Science and Real-Field Demands. Microorganisms. 2021 Jun 3;9(6):1212. doi: 10.3390/microorganisms9061212. PMID: 34205095; PMCID: PMC8228026.

Highlights Legionella control of water systems is a multivariable problem. It is unfeasible to assume that Legionella might be eradicated from water systems – prevention is key. Field-based trials are an important component of Legionella study but often disregard the role of protozoa and biofilms as critical ecological niches for Legionella growth, infectivity, and perseverance… Read more »

Schoonmaker-Bopp D, Nazarian E, Dziewulski D, Clement E, Baker DJ, Dickinson MC, Saylors A, Codru N, Thompson L, Lapierre P, Dumas N, Limberger R, Musser KA. Improvements to the Success of Outbreak Investigations of Legionnaires’ Disease: 40 Years of Testing and Investigation in New York State. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2021 Jun 4:AEM0058021. doi: 10.1128/AEM.00580-21. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34085864.

Highlights Testing and investigation methods used in New York State (NYS) over the past 40 years have changed and improved over time and lessons learned from investigations. Advanced testing and prioritising investigational approaches have led to a high level of success for both solved outbreaks and culture isolation of clinical isolates. Linking clinical and environmental isolates… Read more »

Hamilton KA, Kuppravalli A, Heida A, Joshi S, Haas CN, Verhougstraete M, Gerrity D. Legionnaires’ disease in dental offices: quantifying aerosol risks to dental workers and patients. J Occup Environ Hyg. 2021 Jun 23:1-21. doi: 10.1080/15459624.2021.1939878. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34161202.

Highlights Dental offices pose a potential risk for inhalation or aspiration of pneumophila due to the high surface area to volume ratio of dental unit water lines (DUWL) DUWL are conducive to biofilm growth and high-pressure water devices (e.g., ultrasonic scalers) produce fine aerosols within the breathing zone. pneumophila occurs in DUWL, but associated human… Read more »

Calero Preciado C, Boxall J, Soria-Carrasco V, Martínez S, Douterelo I. Implications of Climate Change: How Does Increased Water Temperature Influence Biofilm and Water Quality of Chlorinated Drinking Water Distribution Systems? Front Microbiol. 2021 Jun 8;12:658927. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2021.658927. PMID: 34168627; PMCID: PMC8217620.

Highlights Higher temperatures increased biofilm formation on High-Density Polyethylene (HDPE) pipes in a chlorinated drinking water distribution system (DWDS). Material accumulation was accelerated by temperature but this did not effect biofilm strength Temperature triggered changes in the microbiome of the DWDS and changes were more notable in biofilms. Pseudomonas and Fusarium proliferated with temperature increase… Read more »

Girolamini L, Salaris S, Pascale MR, Mazzotta M, Cristino S. Dynamics of Legionella Community Interactions in Response to Temperature and Disinfection Treatment: 7 Years of Investigation. Microb Ecol. 2021 Jun 5. doi: 10.1007/s00248-021-01778-9. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34091718.

Highlights The Legionella community complex and attention needs to be given to lesser known Legionella The most prevalent species were pneumophila serogroup 1 (78.53%), followed by L. anisa (54.45%) and L. rubrilucens(21.99%) which were sometimes present together. anisa showed disinfection treatment resistance Legionella surveillance must consider bacterial concentration and identification of communities that are influenced… Read more »

Santos LMCD, Silva ESD, Oliveira FO, Rodrigues LAP, Neves PRF, Meira CS, Moreira GAF, Lobato GM, Nascimento C, Gerhardt M, Lessa AS, Mascarenhas LAB, Machado BAS. Ozonized Water in Microbial Control: Analysis of the Stability, In Vitro Biocidal Potential, and Cytotoxicity. Biology (Basel). 2021 Jun 12;10(6):525. doi: 10.3390/biology10060525. PMID: 34204772; PMCID: PMC8231602.

Highlights Ozonized water is characterized as a potential antimicrobial agent O3concentration increases according to the temperature variation and the pH of the water. A higher concentration of O3in water at 4 °C and pH 5 resulted in greater efficacy in the decontamination process. Ozonized water at 0.6 ppm can be used as a sanitizing agent…. Read more »

Huang CK, Weerasekara A, Bond PL, Weynberg KD, Guo J. Characterizing the premise plumbing microbiome in both water and biofilms of a 50-year-old building. Sci Total Environ. 2021 Jul 22;798:149225. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.149225. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34340073.

Highlights The premise plumbing microbiome of a 50-year-old university building was characterized. Biofilms were dominated with biofilm-formers and emerging opportunistic pathogens (OPs). Legionellaspp. was used as a model OP to assess its presence in the premise plumbing system. Discrepancies remain between culture-dependent and -independent outcomes for Legionellaspp.   LINK TO PAPER – CLICK HERE

Brady MF, Sundareshan V. Legionnaires’ Disease. 2021 Jul 10. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2021 Jan–. PMID: 28613558. (Book)

Excerpt Legionnaires’ disease is caused by Legionella pneumophila. Pontiac fever refers to a benign, self-limited, acute febrile illness which is linked serologically to L pneumophila. L pneumophila causes pneumonia and should be considered as a pathogen in any patient with atypical pneumonia. The Legionella bacterium was first identified in 1976 in Philadelphia. Contamination of the water in the air… Read more »

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