A selection of links to recent research papers available online and may be free to access. 

The conclusions are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the WMSoc.

Recurrence, microevolution, and spatiotemporal dynamics of Legionella pneumophila sequence type 1905, Portugal, 2014–2022

Manageiro V, Borges V, Rodrigues R, Bettencourt C, Silva C, Gomes JP, Gonçalves P. Highlights: The Vila Franca de Xira outbreak in Portugal is one of the largest reported of LD (>400 cases and 14 deaths) The outbreak was associated with ST 1905 of L. pneumophila subspecies fraseri serogroup 1 strain, which probably originated from… Read more »

Non-Culturable Legionella Identified With Sequencing

Weeber P, Singh N, Lapierre P, Mingle L, Wroblewski D, Nazarian EJ, Haas W, Weiss D, Musser KA. 0. A novel hybridization capture method for direct whole genome sequencing of clinical specimens to inform Legionnaires’ disease investigations. J Clin Microbiol 0:e01305-23. Highlights: Legionnaires’ disease is a rare and dangerous respiratory tract infection. Diagnosis and surveillance… Read more »

Impacts of lid closure during toilet flushing and of toilet bowl cleaning on viral contamination of surfaces in United States restrooms

Madison P. Goforth, Stephanie A. Boone, Justin Clark, Priscilla B. Valenzuela, Julie McKinney, M. Khalid Ijaz, Charles P. Gerba. AJIC 52, 2;141-146: 2024 Highlights Viral aerosols from toilet flushing pose a possible route of pathogen transmission. Toilet lid closure prior to flushing is believed to mitigate cross-contamination. Toilet lid closure prior to flushing does not… Read more »

Assessment of antibiotic-resistant infection risks associated with reclaimed wastewater irrigation in intensive tomato cultivation

Samira Nahim-Granados, Hunter Quon, María Inmaculada Polo López, Isabel Oller, Ana Agüera, Sunny Jiang. Water Research Available online 7 March 2024, 121437 Highlights E. coli risk through tomato consumption is within WHO recommendation Pseudomonas eye infection risk through soil contact is greater than that of E. coli The presence of residual antibiotics reduces the overall… Read more »

Validation of PVT VIABLE® for Detection of Legionella in Potable and Non-Potable Water: AOAC Performance Tested Method SM 082303

Wickenberg L, Gabrie K, McCarthy P, Cain M. J AOAC Int. 2024 Jan 4;107(1):120-128. doi: 10.1093/jaoacint/qsad112. PMID: 37740955. Highlights Phigenics Validation Test (PVT) VIABLE® (Viability Identification Assay by Legionella Enrichment) is a method to detect viable legionella bacteria in building water systems. PVT VIABLE was validated against ISO 11731:2017 Water Quality-Enumeration of Legionella reference method… Read more »

Prevention of Legionella infections from toilet flushing cisterns

Bechmann L, Bauer K, Zerban P, Esser T, Tersteegen A, Fuchs SA, Kaasch AJ, Wolleschak D, Schalk E, Fischer T, Mougiakakos D, Geginat G. J Hosp Infect. 2024 Jan 13:S0195-6701(24)00010-0. doi: 10.1016/j.jhin.2023.12.016. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 38224856. Highlights This study reports an investigation following a fatal case of hospital-acquired legionellosis linked to contaminated water… Read more »

Knowledge, Attitudes, Practices and Perceived Challenges for Healthcare Workers on Water-Less ICU Care at a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit in Singapore

Buvaneswarran S, Chua MCW, Amin Z, Xia W, Low JM. J Hosp Infect. 2024 Jan 25:S0195-6701(24)00027-6. doi: 10.1016/j.jhin.2023.11.025. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 38280438. Highlights Implementation of water-less care, including removal of sinks from patient care areas, is an emerging approach to reduce water-borne infections in high-risk areas such as intensive care units (ICUs). This… Read more »

Identification of carbapenem-resistant organism (CRO) contamination of in-room sinks in intensive care units in a new hospital bed tower

Warren BG, Smith BA, Barrett A, Graves AM, Nelson A, Gettler E, Lewis SS, Anderson DJ. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2024 Jan 19:1-8. doi: 10.1017/ice.2023.289. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 38239018. Highlights The origins and timing of inpatient room sink contamination with carbapenem-resistant organisms (CROs) are poorly understood. 1,638 total environmental cultures were obtained and… Read more »

Study of Legionella pneumophila treatment with copper in drinking water by single cell-ICP-MS

Xu L, Sigler A, Chernatynskaya A, Rasmussen L, Lu J, Sahle-Demessie E, Westenberg D, Yang H, Shi H. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2023 Nov 14. doi: 10.1007/s00216-023-05033-7. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 37962610. Highlights This study, developed a highly sensitive single cell (SC)-ICP-MS method to monitor L. pneumophila cell concentration and track their uptake of Cu…. Read more »

Unraveling bacterial and eukaryotic communities in secondary water supply systems: Dynamics, assembly, and health implications

Cai X, Hu Y, Zhou S, Meng D, Xia S, Wang H. Water Res. September 2023.   Highlights Secondary water supply systems (SWSSs) are crucial water supply infrastructures for high-rise buildings in metropolitan cities but are associated with increased microbial risks. The mechanisms of SWSS microbial ecology are less clear. Engineering factors such as tank… Read more »

Diary Dates & Events

Grime Scene


Following on from the successful Grime Scene competition, we have decided to continue the theme for another year, but with a twist. This year, we are asking for photographs of the grimiest pictures you can find accompanied with another photograph of how the ‘scene’ has been improved by your maintenance or cleaning.

We will display the photographs in each of the Waterline editions throughout 2024. The ‘most improved’ picture will be chosen by WMSoc members via an online vote. The winner will receive a £25 Amazon Gift Voucher after the Winter 2024/25 edition has been published.

Please send your photographs to:
[email protected].

Product & Service Spotlight

Introducing B & V Chemicals' Multitreat SHD showerhead descalers.

Multitreat SHD showerhead descalers from B & V Chemicals are easy to use and effectively eliminate Legionella spp and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Independent tests confirm its efficacy, achieving a 5 log reduction within 5 minutes. Proven to prevent Legionella growth, Multitreat SHD ensures peace of mind by addressing scale buildup quickly.

Customer feedback and laboratory tests validate its reliability.

For more information, contact [email protected]

How the NEW SolidTek® Biocide Feeder Package will BENEFIT YOU

SolidTek® has launched its NEW Biocide Feeder which is functional, compact, and environmentally-friendly.

Designed for use with SolidTek’s® enhanced bromine biocide, BromTek, it offers multiple benefits:

Reduced exposure to fumes and bromine dust (non-pressurised system).

Use with field proven mixed hydantoin biocide - better performance than standard bromine tablets.

Wall mounted reducing footprint of installation.

Charge with product in under 5 minutes without isolation from the system.

Product calculators and tech support available.

Lovibond MD640 Photometer (PTSA & Fluorescein capable)

Product Spotlight Drop Test Kits

How many times have you heard … ‘we’re not sure what the system volume is’. A common problem which can be expensive - wasting chemical over dosing, or underdosing so the treatment is ineffective (i.e. shock dosing a biocide). The MD640 photometer has PTSA & Fluorescein capability built in. Simply use our System Checkers to add to an unknown system and read a PTSA or Fluorescein levels to accurately identify the system volume.

The Hydrosense PRO range


The Hydrosense PRO range pioneers Legionella pneumophila detection, the cause of over 97% of Legionnaires’ disease outbreaks, by identifying all the serogroups 1-15 of this dangerous Legionella species. This easy-to-use, highly sensitive test uses unique filtration, offering a three-line test result that distinguishes between serogroup 1 and serogroups 2-15 within 25 minutes. The water test has a level of detection of 100 CFU/L and swab tests detect 200 CFU per swabbed area, providing crucial, rapid insights for water safety management.