A selection of links to recent research papers available online and may be free to access. 

The conclusions are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the WMSoc.

Protozoan-Priming and Magnesium Conditioning Enhance Legionella pneumophila Dissemination and Monochloramine Resistance

Cambronne ED, Ayres C, Dowdell KS, Lawler DF, Saleh NB, Kirisits MJ. Environ Sci Technol. October 2023.   Highlights Legionella pneumophila (Lp) gains disinfection resistance by being harboured within free-living amoebae (FLA). Supplementing growth medium with 8 mM magnesium is sufficient to produce Lp grown in vitro with an infectivity equivalent to that of Lp… Read more »

Development of heat-shock resistance in Legionella pneumophila modeled by experimental evolution

Liang J, Cameron G, Faucher SP.. Appl Environ Microbiol. September 2023.   Highlights Legionella pneumophila is a key factor motivating regulations on hot water systems. Two major measures to control Legionella are high circulating temperatures intended to curtail growth and the use of superheat-and-flush pasteurization processes to eliminate established populations. Facilities often suffer recolonization of… Read more »

Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion – More than just Microorganisms

Highlights Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) describes the effects, often negative, that a material can experience due to the presence of microorganisms. An interdisciplinary approach is required for this material/biology/chemistry-related challenge. This review highlights critical non-biological aspects of MIC that can sometimes be overlooked by microbiologists working on MIC but which are highly relevant. Gaps, methods… Read more »

Legionella in drinking water: the detection method matters – Journal of Water and Health

N Zacharias, F Waßer, L Freier, K Spies, C Koch, S Pleischl, N Mutters, T Kistemann; Legionella in drinking water: the detection method matters. J Water Health 1 July 2023; 21 (7): 884–894. Highlights The type of culture media directly impacts reported Legionella spp. concentrations. The type of culture media directly impacts the types of… Read more »

Dynamic modelling of Legionella pneumophila thermal inactivation in water – ScienceDirect

Papagianeli SD, Aspridou Z, Didos S, Chochlakis D, Psaroulaki A, Koutsoumanis K. Dynamic modelling of Legionella pneumophila thermal inactivation in water. Water Res. 2021 Feb 15;190:116743.   Highlights A predictive mathematical model describing the effect of temperature on the inactivation of Legionella pneumophila in water was developed. Thermal inactivation of L. pneumophila was monitored under… Read more »

Examining the efficacy of copper-silver ionization for management of Legionella: Recommendations for optimal use

Abstract Although copper-silver ionization (CSI) has been used for 30 years to inactivate Legionella bacteria and other opportunistic pathogens in water, the literature is a mix of both successes and failures. This paper reviews the technology and case studies to help improve the success of CSI installations. Important is a properly designed system capable of consistent… Read more »

Effects of early biofilm formation on water quality during commissioning of new polyethylene pipes

Highlights Mature biofilms are considered beneficial to non-chlorinated Danish drinking water distribution systems, as they increase the microbiological stability of the water. During commissioning of new pipes, biofilms start developing on the new pipe wall, and are influenced by factors such as water quality, pipe material, flow velocity and presence of biofilm upstream. The early… Read more »

Impact of prolonged hotel closures during the COVID-19 pandemic on Legionella infection risks

  Highlights There are very few field studies comparing the level of Legionella colonisation in buildings before and after the pandemic lockdowns. This study analysed a group of hotels that experienced prolonged closures in 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Legionella spp. were analysed by standard culture, immediately after reopening, from the domestic water distribution systems of 73… Read more »

Legionella bononiensis sp. nov., isolated from a hotel water distribution system in northern Italy – Microbiology Society (

Highlights Legionella-like isolates were isolated from a hotel water distribution system in Italy. Isolates were Gram-negative, rod-shaped and able to grow at 32–37 °C on buffered charcoal–yeast extract agar. Genetic analysis showed a close relationship with L. quateirensis The results obtained confirm the status of an independent species. The name proposed for this species is Legionella bononiensis nov…. Read more »

Genomic characterization and assessment of pathogenic potential of Legionella spp. isolates from environmental monitoring – PubMed (

Highlights Over several years of molecular and genome-based monitoring, Legionella isolates from different geographical locations were collected and 39 of them were sequenced. In addition they were typed by standard culture and MALDI-TOF. Four potential new species in the Legionella genus were identified, which still need to be characterised fully. This study assists in the… Read more »

Diary Dates & Events

Grime Scene


Following on from the successful Grime Scene competition, we have decided to continue the theme for another year, but with a twist. This year, we are asking for photographs of the grimiest pictures you can find accompanied with another photograph of how the ‘scene’ has been improved by your maintenance or cleaning.

We will display the photographs in each of the Waterline editions throughout 2024. The ‘most improved’ picture will be chosen by WMSoc members via an online vote. The winner will receive a £25 Amazon Gift Voucher after the Winter 2024/25 edition has been published.

Please send your photographs to:
[email protected].

Product & Service Spotlight

Introducing B & V Chemicals' Multitreat SHD showerhead descalers.

Multitreat SHD showerhead descalers from B & V Chemicals are easy to use and effectively eliminate Legionella spp and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Independent tests confirm its efficacy, achieving a 5 log reduction within 5 minutes. Proven to prevent Legionella growth, Multitreat SHD ensures peace of mind by addressing scale buildup quickly.

Customer feedback and laboratory tests validate its reliability.

For more information, contact [email protected]

How the NEW SolidTek® Biocide Feeder Package will BENEFIT YOU

SolidTek® has launched its NEW Biocide Feeder which is functional, compact, and environmentally-friendly.

Designed for use with SolidTek’s® enhanced bromine biocide, BromTek, it offers multiple benefits:

Reduced exposure to fumes and bromine dust (non-pressurised system).

Use with field proven mixed hydantoin biocide - better performance than standard bromine tablets.

Wall mounted reducing footprint of installation.

Charge with product in under 5 minutes without isolation from the system.

Product calculators and tech support available.

Lovibond MD640 Photometer (PTSA & Fluorescein capable)

Product Spotlight Drop Test Kits

How many times have you heard … ‘we’re not sure what the system volume is’. A common problem which can be expensive - wasting chemical over dosing, or underdosing so the treatment is ineffective (i.e. shock dosing a biocide). The MD640 photometer has PTSA & Fluorescein capability built in. Simply use our System Checkers to add to an unknown system and read a PTSA or Fluorescein levels to accurately identify the system volume.

The Hydrosense PRO range


The Hydrosense PRO range pioneers Legionella pneumophila detection, the cause of over 97% of Legionnaires’ disease outbreaks, by identifying all the serogroups 1-15 of this dangerous Legionella species. This easy-to-use, highly sensitive test uses unique filtration, offering a three-line test result that distinguishes between serogroup 1 and serogroups 2-15 within 25 minutes. The water test has a level of detection of 100 CFU/L and swab tests detect 200 CFU per swabbed area, providing crucial, rapid insights for water safety management.