A selection of links to recent research papers available online and may be free to access. 

The conclusions are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the WMSoc.

Implications of Climate Change: How Does Increased Water Temperature Influence Biofilm and Water Quality of Chlorinated Drinking Water Distribution Systems?

Calero Preciado C, Boxall J, Soria-Carrasco V, Martínez S, Douterelo I. Front Microbiol. 2021 Jun 8;12:658927. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2021.658927. PMID: 34168627; PMCID: PMC8217620.   Highlights Higher temperatures increased biofilm formation on High-Density Polyethylene (HDPE) pipes in a chlorinated drinking water distribution system (DWDS). Material accumulation was accelerated by temperature but this did not effect biofilm strength… Read more »

Dynamics of Legionella Community Interactions in Response to Temperature and Disinfection Treatment: 7 Years of Investigation

Girolamini L, Salaris S, Pascale MR, Mazzotta M, Cristino S. Microb Ecol. 2021 Jun 5. doi: 10.1007/s00248-021-01778-9. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34091718.   Highlights The Legionella community complex and attention needs to be given to lesser known Legionella The most prevalent species were pneumophila serogroup 1 (78.53%), followed by L. anisa (54.45%) and L…. Read more »

Ozonized Water in Microbial Control: Analysis of the Stability, In Vitro Biocidal Potential, and Cytotoxicity

Santos LMCD, Silva ESD, Oliveira FO, Rodrigues LAP, Neves PRF, Meira CS, Moreira GAF, Lobato GM, Nascimento C, Gerhardt M, Lessa AS, Mascarenhas LAB, Machado BAS. Biology (Basel). 2021 Jun 12;10(6):525. doi: 10.3390/biology10060525. PMID: 34204772; PMCID: PMC8231602.   Highlights Ozonized water is characterized as a potential antimicrobial agent O3concentration increases according to the temperature variation… Read more »

Characterizing the premise plumbing microbiome in both water and biofilms of a 50-year-old building

Huang CK, Weerasekara A, Bond PL, Weynberg KD, Guo J. Sci Total Environ. 2021 Jul 22;798:149225. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.149225. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34340073.   Highlights The premise plumbing microbiome of a 50-year-old university building was characterized. Biofilms were dominated with biofilm-formers and emerging opportunistic pathogens (OPs). Legionellaspp. was used as a model OP to… Read more »

Legionnaires’ Disease

Brady MF, Sundareshan V. 2021 Jul 10. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2021 Jan–. PMID: 28613558. (Book)   Excerpt Legionnaires’ disease is caused by Legionella pneumophila. Pontiac fever refers to a benign, self-limited, acute febrile illness which is linked serologically to L pneumophila. L pneumophila causes pneumonia and should be considered as a pathogen… Read more »

A study to investigate the impact of two commonly used neutralizing agents in water sampling bottles on legionella & pseudomonas bacteria recovery

Lai S, Nielsen B, Andrews N, Thompson CK.  J Hosp Infect. 2021 Jul 21:S0195-6701(21)00270-X. doi: 10.1016/j.jhin.2021.07.007. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34302884.   Highlights Microbiology testing laboratories commonly use sample bottles containing sodium thiosulphate as the neutralising agent for oxidising biocides and these are readily available as commercially prepared and sterilized products. Bottles are typically… Read more »

Comparative study of Legiolert with ISO 11731-1998 standard method-conclusions from a Public Health Laboratory

Checa J, Carbonell I, Manero N, Martí I. J Microbiol Methods. 2021 Jul;186:106242. doi: 10.1016/j.mimet.2021.106242. Epub 2021 May 18. PMID: 34019935.   Highlights Legiolert and the standard method detected a similar percentage of positive samples, with Legiolert being slightly higher (31 vs 30%) and detecting higher concentrations of Legionella within the samples. ISO 17994:2014 analysis… Read more »

Complex microbial interactions affect colonization of cooling towers by Legionella

Kiran Paranjape. Émilie Bédard, Deeksha Shetty, MengQi Hu, Fiona Chan, Pak Choon, Michèle Prévost, Sébastien P. Faucher   Highlights Cooling towers have been linked to many outbreaks of Legionnaires’ disease, a severe pneumonia caused by Legionella Researchers identified complex ecological networks highlighting the importance of other bacteria and primary producers e.g. the presence of Brevundimonas… Read more »

Cooccurrence of Five Pathogenic Legionella spp. and Two Free-Living Amoebae Species in a Complete Drinking Water System and Cooling Towers

Alshae Logan-Jackson and Joan B. Rose Highlights Pathogenic Legionella species grow optimally inside free-living amoebae to concentrations that increase risks to those who are exposed. The study screened a complete drinking water system and cooling towers for the occurrence of Acanthamoeba and Naegleria fowleriand their cooccurrence with Legionella pneumophila, L. anisa, L. micdadei, L. bozemanii, and L. longbeachae. fowleri was detected more often in… Read more »

It’s never too late- spontaneous rupture of spleen and life-threatening hypovolemic shock in a patient recuperating from Legionnaires’ disease

jaccradmin  Vol 7 | Issue 2 | May-August 2021 | Page: 06-09 | Naveen Yadav, Krishnaswamy Sundararajan   Highlights Spontaneous non-traumatic rupture of the spleen in the setting of Legionnaires’ disease is a very uncommon but life-threatening condition. Most cases described in previous literature have presented within 0-11 (mean 4) days of the pneumonia but… Read more »

Diary Dates & Events

Grime Scene


Following on from the successful Grime Scene competition, we have decided to continue the theme for another year, but with a twist. This year, we are asking for photographs of the grimiest pictures you can find accompanied with another photograph of how the ‘scene’ has been improved by your maintenance or cleaning.

We will display the photographs in each of the Waterline editions throughout 2024. The ‘most improved’ picture will be chosen by WMSoc members via an online vote. The winner will receive a £25 Amazon Gift Voucher after the Winter 2024/25 edition has been published.

Please send your photographs to:

Product & Service Spotlight

Introducing B & V Chemicals' new film forming amines for closed circuits and steam boilers.

Product Launch: Film forming amines.

This all-in-one solution offers low-dose, cost-effective treatment. Improves heat transfer efficiency by removing corrosion deposits, leading to cleaner surfaces. Enhances energy and resource efficiency by reducing Total Dissolved Solids (TDS). The stable film provided by polyamines ensures superior corrosion control, promoting longer equipment lifespan.

Plus - environmentally friendly, offering a greener alternative to traditional treatments.

Contact us on for further information.

How the NEW SolidTek® Biocide Feeder Package will BENEFIT YOU

SolidTek® has launched its NEW Biocide Feeder which is functional, compact, and environmentally-friendly.

Designed for use with SolidTek’s® enhanced bromine biocide, BromTek, it offers multiple benefits:

Reduced exposure to fumes and bromine dust (non-pressurised system).

Use with field proven mixed hydantoin biocide - better performance than standard bromine tablets.

Wall mounted reducing footprint of installation.

Charge with product in under 5 minutes without isolation from the system.

Product calculators and tech support available.

Lovibond MD640 Photometer (PTSA & Fluorescein capable)

Product Spotlight Drop Test Kits

How many times have you heard … ‘we’re not sure what the system volume is’. A common problem which can be expensive - wasting chemical over dosing, or underdosing so the treatment is ineffective (i.e. shock dosing a biocide). The MD640 photometer has PTSA & Fluorescein capability built in. Simply use our System Checkers to add to an unknown system and read a PTSA or Fluorescein levels to accurately identify the system volume.

The Hydrosense PRO range


The Hydrosense PRO range pioneers Legionella pneumophila detection, the cause of over 97% of Legionnaires’ disease outbreaks, by identifying all the serogroups 1-15 of this dangerous Legionella species. This easy-to-use, highly sensitive test uses unique filtration, offering a three-line test result that distinguishes between serogroup 1 and serogroups 2-15 within 25 minutes. The water test has a level of detection of 100 CFU/L and swab tests detect 200 CFU per swabbed area, providing crucial, rapid insights for water safety management.